Sample amino acid scale. Listen these aminoacids scale: [Source: Prof. Mary Anne Clark website]]

MusicBox's palette of software modules. Samples of DNA music created with KMM (Kinetic Music Machine), an expanded version of the original MusicBox (, with DNA algorithms developed in collaboration with University of Hawaii botanist Dr. K.W. Bridges. Sound source is EMu Proteus synthesizers. (Notes on the genetic data: Human Sex Hormone, DNA of HIV, Vampire Bat, Scorpion Stinge). You can download this music here:

"Life Music: The Sonification of Proteins" by Artist John Dunn and Biologist Mary Anne Clark (1998). The authors describe the process by which this collaboration merges scientific knowledge and artistic expression to produce soundscapes from these basic building blocks of life, that may be encountered as esthetic experiences, as scientific inquiry, or both. The rationale for both artistic use of the science and scientific use of the art is described from the separate viewpoints of artist and scientist. The authors produced from the primary and secondary structure of protein sequences, using BioSon software (built on KAM), and EMu Proteus (Clark) and Morphius (Dunn) synths. In each piece, pitch is determined by amino acid identity and instrumentation is chosen according to protein folding pattern, with different instruments representing regions of alpha-helix, beta-strands and turns. An article detailing this work has been published in Leonardo On Line: Listen Life Music here:

John Dunn